Breaking Free from the Drama Triangle: A Guide to Healthier, More Empowering Relationships

By Madeline Farquharson, CPCC

I used to be a crappy friend. A while ago, a close friend of mine would frequently come to me, upset and frustrated, sharing the same problems over and over. Each time, I listened and offered my best advice, sometimes even going out of my way to help them find solutions. It felt good to be there for my friend, to be the person they relied on. By most measures, and at least my own at the time, I was being a supportive friend!

But then, I noticed a pattern. Weeks, even months would pass, and we'd find ourselves having the same conversation, with my friend seemingly unchanged and my advice lying there like a limp fish. Around this time, I bumped into a framework that changed the way I built relationships: the Drama Triangle.

What was mind-blowing to me at the time was the fact that playing one of these roles often enables others to play the mirror roles. Every time I stepped in for my friend as her Rescuer, I was enabling, even encouraging her, to continue her role as the helpless Victim. In my desire to be needed, valued, and loved by my friend, I was actively participating in a dynamic that was stripping her of her power.

In this article, we'll explore the Drama Triangle in relationships, complete with real-life examples and actionable solutions. My goal? To guide you from being trapped in this cycle to thriving in a more healthy, empowering dynamic.

By the way, you can watch the video version of the article here:

What is the Karpman Drama Triangle?

In the 1960s, this concept was introduced by Stephen Karpman and it helps paint a vivid (and kind of “I feel called out”) picture of unhealthy dynamics in our relationships that keep drama alive and well.

Imagine a triangle with three corners labeled Victim, Persecutor, and Rescuer. This isn't just any triangle, but a representation of a psychological model that unfolds in many of our relationships, often without our conscious awareness. The roles within this Drama Triangle are not fixed; people can oscillate between them depending on the situation. However, these roles often manifest in very recognizable patterns.

The Victim:

This role is characterized by feelings of helplessness and powerlessness. A person in the Victim role often perceives themselves as being at the mercy of circumstances or other people's actions. Their language is filled with a sense of lack of control and a focus on their suffering or misfortune.

  • "Nothing ever goes right for me."
  • "I can't believe this always happens to me."

The Persecutor:

The Persecutor is the one who blames, criticizes, or dominates. This role is often about control and creating a sense of superiority by putting others down. The Persecutor often appears to be the 'villain' in the triangle, but it's important to remember that this role is also driven by its own fears and insecurities. Also keep in mind that in many circumstances, the Persecutor is actually a circumstance or situation, not necessarily a person.

  • "This is not what I expected. I thought someone with your experience would do better.”
  • "You're always so sensitive. I just made a joke. Can't you take a joke?”
  • "I should have known better. I always make the wrong decisions.”

The Rescuer:

The Rescuer swoops in to 'save' the Victim, often without being asked. This role is driven by a need to be needed, leading to a cycle where the Rescuer enables the Victim's sense of helplessness. While it might seem like the most benevolent role, the Rescuer can inadvertently maintain the Victim's sense of incapability and dependency.

  • "This is what I think you should do…"
  • "I'll just handle this. If I don't, it probably won't get done right.”
  • "I went ahead and paid your credit card bill. You always forget, and I don't want us to get into trouble.”
  • "I fixed the errors in your report. I know you've been swamped, so I thought I’d help out.”

The role that I’ve found myself in most of the time is either the Rescuer or the Victim. And by the way, there’s a difference between being an actual victim in real-life situations and playing the 'Victim' role as defined in the Drama Triangle. In the Drama Triangle, the 'Victim' role is about a mindset where one feels powerless or blames external circumstances for their problems, often without recognizing their own ability to change the situation. This Triangle is from the 1960s and so it uses terminology that has since become loaded. For the clarity of this article and the ability for people to learn and grow without confusing anyone, I’ve kept the label.

Understanding these roles is crucial because they often lead to a cycle of unhealthy interactions. The Victim feels oppressed, the Persecutor feels vilified, and the Rescuer ends up overwhelmed and unappreciated. This loop of dysfunction prevents constructive resolution and personal growth. Recognizing these patterns in our conversations and behavior is the first step towards breaking free from the Drama Triangle and fostering healthier, more empowering relationships.

Why is the Drama Triangle Unhealthy?

The Drama Triangle is more than just a concept; it's like a mirror reflecting the not-so-great patterns we sometimes fall into in our relationships. The Drama Triangle is common in families, in dynamics at work, and anywhere that people are involved! Here's how they can mix things up in ways that aren't always helpful:

  • The Victim: This person often feels like things are out of their control, like life is happening to them, not with them.
    • Picture someone saying, "I missed that deadline because no one ever tells me anything on time!" This approach can create a vibe where taking charge and problem-solving takes a back seat.
    • Think of a family member who often says, "Nothing I do is ever good enough for you!" This can create an atmosphere where it's hard to communicate and grow together.
  • The Persecutor: This role involves a lot of finger-pointing and blame, which can be pretty intense for everyone involved.
    • Imagine a boss who says, "You messed this up again! Can't you do anything right?" This can make the workplace feel more like a pressure cooker than a team effort.
    • Consider a parent who constantly criticizes, "You're always on your phone, no wonder your house is a mess!" This might lead to hurt feelings and a not-so-cozy home environment.
  • The Rescuer: While the Rescuer means well, their 'saving the day' attitude can sometimes keep others from learning and growing.
    • Envision a manager who always steps in, "Don't worry, I'll talk to the client since you're having trouble." Helpful in the short term, but it might keep the team from developing their own skills.
    • Think of a parent who does everything for their child, "I'll do your laundry again; you'd probably mix the colors." It's super sweet, but it might not teach the child to be self-reliant.

In each of these roles, the common thread is how they can put a bit of a damper on personal and relational growth. The Victim might feel stuck, the Persecutor could create a bit of a chilly atmosphere, and the Rescuer might accidentally prevent others from standing on their own two feet. Recognizing these patterns is like turning on a light in a dim room – it can really help us see how to change things up for healthier, happier relationships.

Drama Triangle Examples in Everyday Relationships

These things can be challenging to see until you start looking for them. So here are some more examples that might help you to see some patterns in situations you’ve been in:

In a Friendship Dynamic:

  • Victim: A friend often laments, "I'm always left out. You guys have more fun without me."
  • Persecutor: Another friend responds, "That's because you're always so negative. Lighten up a bit."
  • Rescuer: Someone else in the group intervenes, "I'll make sure you're included next time, don't feel bad."

In a Work Dynamic:

  • Victim: An employee frequently complains, "This project is doomed. I'm set up to fail with these unrealistic deadlines."
  • Persecutor: Their manager retorts, "If you managed your time better, this wouldn't be an issue."
  • Rescuer: A co-worker chimes in, "Don't worry, I'll help you finish. We'll get it done."

In a Family Dynamic:

  • Victim: An adult child often says, "You always criticize my career choices, I can never please you."
  • Persecutor: A parent responds, "If you had chosen a more stable job, we wouldn't be having these discussions."
  • Rescuer: Another family member intervenes, "Let's just drop the subject. I'll explain to mom and dad why you made these choices."

How do you break the Drama Triangle?

The first step is admitting you don’t want to be in it. So often we believe that we want to be in the “best role” of the triangle. That alone keeps us trapped. Once you do that, you can make space for stepping into a healthier dynamic which we will explore next: the Empowerment Dynamic.

There are 3 key steps to ditching the Drama Triangle for good.

  • Awareness: Recognize when you are in a Drama Triangle role.
  • Mindset Shift: Change your perspective from problems to possibilities.
  • Choice and Action: Decide to adopt the corresponding Empowerment Dynamic role and take actions that align with this new role.

Let’s explore the Empowerment Dynamic and how to get there.

The Healthy Version of the Drama Triangle: The Empowerment Dynamic

The Empowerment Dynamic is an alternative to the Karpman Drama Triangle, created by David Emerald. It offers a framework for transforming the reactive roles of Victim, Persecutor, and Rescuer into positive, proactive roles: Creator, Challenger, and Coach. But first we have to understand the new roles to figure out how to make the switch.

  1. From Victim to Creator:
    • Victim (Drama Triangle): Feels powerless, oppressed, helpless, and blames others or circumstances for their problems.
    • Creator (Empowerment Dynamic): Takes responsibility for their actions and feelings. They are solution-focused, resourceful, and take proactive steps to change their situation.
    • Example of Switch: Instead of saying, “I can’t do anything about this situation,” (Victim), a Creator would say, “What are the options and choices available to me? How can I create a positive change?”
  2. From Persecutor to Challenger:
    • Persecutor (Drama Triangle): Blames, criticizes, and dominates others, often making them feel oppressed or inferior.
    • Challenger (Empowerment Dynamic): Poses challenges to others in a way that is respectful and growth-oriented. They encourage others to take responsibility and make positive changes, offering support without judgment.
    • Example of Switch: Instead of blaming or criticizing (Persecutor), a Challenger might say, “I believe in your ability to handle this. What can you learn from this situation, and how can you grow?”
  3. From Rescuer to Coach:
    • Rescuer (Drama Triangle): Tries to help, fix, or save others, often without being asked and sometimes enabling the Victim's dependency.
    • Coach (Empowerment Dynamic): Listens, asks empowering questions, and encourages others to find their own solutions. They offer support and guidance without taking over the problem.
    • Example of Switch: Instead of jumping in to solve problems (Rescuer), a Coach might say, “What do you think you need to do in this situation? How can I support you in finding your own solution?”

A Quick Exercise for Recognizing and Shifting Roles

1. Find your role:

Recall a specific conflict or challenging situation that recently happened. It might be at work, or in your personal life. Once you’ve got your situation, ask yourself which one of these roles sounds the most applicable. And there’s no judgment here. We’ve all danced around a role or two…or three. Which one fits most for your situation? Who are all the players?

  • Victim: Feelings of powerlessness, being wronged, or oppressed. Thoughts might include “I can’t do anything about this,” or “This always happens to me.”
  • Persecutor: Feelings of anger, frustration, or superiority. Thoughts might include “It’s all their fault,” or “They never do anything right.”
  • Rescuer: Feelings of guilt if not helping, or a compulsion to solve others' problems. Thoughts might include “I need to fix this,” or “They can’t handle this without me.”

You may realize that it’s possible to flip-flop between roles in a given situation. You may also realize that the “persecutor” is not always a person, but sometimes a situation. Basically something to place blame on.

In my case, the role I found myself in was the Rescuer. Every time my friend came to me with their problems, I jumped in to offer advice and help, thinking I was doing the right thing.

2. Understanding the Impact:

The next step is to understand the impact. Playing the role in and of itself isn’t the problem. It’s the impact that has.

  • Victim: Did you passively accept the situation or refrain from asserting themselves? What was the cost of refusing to take ownership?
  • Persecutor: Did you blame, criticize, or try to control the situation or others? What was the cost?
  • Rescuer: Did you jump in to solve or smooth over the problem, even if it wasn’t your responsibility? What was the cost?

Playing the Rescuer made me feel needed but also led to a cycle where my friend didn't take steps to solve their own problems. It created a dependency that wasn't healthy for either of us. It made me feel energetically drained from our time together, frustrated, and disheartened. It also meant most of our time was spent talking about her repeating challenge and it cost us depth and intimacy in our relationship because there was no space for me.

3. Visualization Exercise:

Shifting Perspectives: Now, imagine the same situation but from the Empowerment Dynamic perspective.

Victim → Creator

Persecutor → Challenger

Rescuer → Coach

Instead of immediately trying to solve my friend's problems, I see myself as a Coach, asking empowering questions that encourage my friend to find their own solutions. If you’re seeing yourself in the role of the victim, try imagining what it would feel like to be focused on your options and the power of the choice you have.

How to be a Coach instead of a Rescuer

When I first started being a Coach in my personal relationships (long before going to the professional route), I found that a lot of the questions out there made me sound inhuman. I appreciate in some ways, asking coaching questions makes us sound like we’re trying to be unfeeling robots. Part of that comes down to how we are conditioned to jump in and save people. And part of that is because coaching questions can feel weird or even annoying eye-roll at first. So here are some coaching questions that feel more real:

Focusing on the Core Issue:

  • "When you strip away all the noise, what's really bugging you here?"
  • "If you had to pinpoint it, what's the real sticking point in this situation?"

Exploring Personal Feelings and Reactions:

  • "How does this whole thing make you feel, deep down?"
  • "What's your gut telling you about this?"

Encouraging Practical Steps:

  • "What's one thing you could do right now that might make a difference?"
  • "If you had to take a small step today, what would it be?"

Inviting Creative Thinking:

  • "Imagine you had a magic wand – what would you change about this situation?"
  • "If you could rewrite this story, how would it go?"

Prompting Self-Reflection:

  • "What does this remind you of? Any similar situations in the past?"
  • "What's something you wish you could tell yourself about this?"

Encouraging Ownership and Action:

  • "What part of this is in your control to change or influence?"
  • "How do you want to steer this ship? What’s your move?"

Validating Emotions in a Friendly Manner:

  • "Sounds like this is really weighing on you – what’s the heaviest part?"
  • "I hear you, it's tough. What’s the emotion that’s loudest in this?"

Gently Challenging Assumptions:

  • "Is there another way to look at this that you haven’t considered yet?"
  • "What if the opposite of what you're thinking is true?"

How to be a Creator instead of a Victim

Transitioning from the Victim to the Creator role in personal relationships is a journey of empowerment and self-discovery. Just like shifting from the default rescuer role to a more effective coach, moving from Victim to Creator involves a change in how we perceive and respond to situations. It's about taking control and responsibility for our own lives, rather than feeling powerless or blaming others.

Here are some empowering questions and statements that can help someone in the Victim role start thinking and acting more like a Creator:

Identifying Personal Power:

  • "What aspects of this situation can you control or influence?"
  • "How can you turn this challenge into an opportunity for yourself?"

Encouraging Proactive Thinking:

  • "What's one positive step you could take right now?"
  • "How can you approach this differently to change the outcome?"

Fostering Solution-Focused Mindset:

  • "What solutions have you not yet explored?"
  • "Can you think of a time when you overcame a similar challenge? What worked then?"

Promoting Personal Accountability:

  • "How have your actions contributed to this situation, and how can you change them?"
  • "What role do you want to play in creating a better outcome?"

Inviting Self-Reflection:

  • "What have you learned about yourself from this situation?"
  • "How does this challenge align with your personal values and goals?"

Building Resilience:

  • "What strengths can you draw on to handle this?"
  • "How can this situation help you grow?"

Encouraging Ownership of Feelings:

  • "What emotions are you experiencing, and how can you address them constructively?"
  • "How can acknowledging your feelings help you move forward?"
  1. Challenging Limiting Beliefs:
  • "Are there assumptions you’re making that could be holding you back?"
  • "What would you say to a friend who was thinking the same way?"

What keeps us trapped in the Drama Triangle?

I used to think the most challenging part of the Drama triangle was being stuck in the victim role, myself. But I actually realized it wasn’t as hard as I thought to get myself out of that role - it just took time, practice, and a LOT of self-coaching. What was harder was refusing to be in someone else’s triangle - even if they still saw me as playing a role.

On more than one occasion I’ve struggled with this because by NOT taking on the role of the Rescuer, I ended up playing the role of the Persecutor. When someone wants to be in the role of the helpless Victim (and I get it, it’s the easy way out when responsibility feels hard), and you’re not willing to rescue them… they might place you in a role that feels heartbreaking.

But ultimately, all we can really do for the people in our lives is continue to invite them into the new dynamic. I’ve come to accept that for some people, I might be their Persecutor by default. But I’m also firm in the kind, caring, and compassionate person that I am. And while I might step on some toes from time to time, I’d rather do that from the Coach role than the Rescuer role any day. It’s a great act of love to the people in my life to step into that role. I believe in them. I know they can be Creators. I hold space for their greatness, even when they feel helpless. And hopefully, this helps you do the same.